Terms used in official statistics

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Population Balance/Residents Balance


A method for estimating the number and the structure of population according to gender and age for a gmina (the basic administrative territorial unit of the country) in intercensal periods.

The balance method preparing data on number and structure of the population assumes the adoption of the results of the last census for the initial base followed by taking into account data on vital statistics (births and deaths) and migrations (for permanent residence and for temporary stay).

The balance of population are compiled for two category of residence - according to the national and the international definition of residence. The difference concerns the criteria for migration for temporary residence which was taken into account in each of the balance, i.e. according to:

1) the national definition of residence, the population of a gmina includes those living (staying) there for at least 3 months. This means that the population of a gmina includes:

- permanent residents (registered or not) with the exception of those residents who are away for more than three months in another gmina in the country,

- persons who came from another place in the country for more than 3 months.

Immigrants temporarily staying in Poland are not counted as the inhabitants of the gmina. Permanent residents of Poland temporarily staying abroad (regardless of the duration of their absence) are included in the population of the given gmina;

2) the international definition of residence - the usual residence population (residents) is a category of resident of population developed for international statistics as defined by the Regulation of the European Parliament and Council of EU No. 1260/2013 of November 20, 2013 on European demographic statistics. Resident population includes all persons living or intending to live in the unit for not less than 1 year. This means that the population of gmina includes:

- permanent residents (registered or not) with the exception of those residents who left for at least 12 months to another place in the country or abroad,

- persons who came from elsewhere in the country or from abroad (immigrants without permanent residence card) for at least 12 months. The population balance (by sex and age) is prepared for the lowest unit of territorial division, i.e. for each gmina (in the case of urban-rural gminas distinguishing between urban and rural areas); data about population for powiats, voivodships and for Poland total are obtained by summing the appropriate number of population for gminas.

Low-level terms:

Contact person on methodology:
GUS – Departament Badań Demograficznych
Amendments to the description of a concept: