July 13 marks 103 years since Statistics Poland (as the Central Statistical Office) has been established by a Rescipt of the Regency Council of the Kingdom of Poland. Statistics Poland is the only public institution in Poland that has not changed its name during 100 years of its existence.
The most important task performed by Statistics Poland for the state administration of the reborn Poland was conducting the first general population census in 1921.
On its basis our office issued 22 volumes of publications containing approximately 2.5 million pieces of statistical information, showing the entire cross-section of Polish society and economy.
On the 100th anniversary of the first census, the National Population and Housing Census 2021 is taking place from 1 April to 30 September this year.
In the middle of 1921 the first volume of the first Yearbook of Statistics of the Republic of Poland was published; the next volume was published in 1923.
The surveys conducted by the Office contributed to making the right decisions by the government, for example in the field of investments. The surveys’ results were implemented in the design and development of the largest industrial investments in the interwar period: the Port of Gdynia, the Coal Trunk-Line and the Central Industrial District.
As one of the first statistical institutions in Europe, Statistics Poland started to use computerisation. For the first census of population of 30 September 1921 the Office used calculating and analytical machines of James Powers' design purchased in the USA. Punched cards were used at that time, on which a characteristic was written (e.g. age of the respondent) and the machines helped to count it faster.
In 1930, counting and analytical machines of Herman Hollerith's design were imported, thanks to which it was possible to read data from punched cards using electricity. These machines were used in the second Population Census conducted in 1931.
The Census 2021 is fully computerised. By the law the fulfillment of the current census duty is done primarily through an online self-census (self-enumeration).