Terms used in official statistics

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Gross domestic expenditures on research and development (GERD)


Total intramural expenditure on R&D performer in the national territory during a specific reference period.

GERD includes domestically performed R&D that is financed from abroad but excludes funding for R&D performed abroad.

GERD is the principal R&D indicator.

The components of GERD:

  • BERD - Business enterprise expenditure on R&D
  • GOVERD - Government expenditure on R&D
  • HERD - Higher education expenditure on R&D
  • PNPERD - Private non-profit expenditure on R&D.

High-level terms

Contact person on methodology:
Urząd Statystyczny w Szczecinie