On 11 November 1918, after 123 years of partitions, the Polish state was reborn. The independence aspirations of the entire nation and the defeat of the partitioning powers (Austria, Germany and Russia) during World War I contributed to this. The first years after gaining independence were primarily sacrificed to the elimination of war damage, the defence of Poland's borders (mainly in the years 1918-1922) and the integration of the lands of the former three partitions - in terms of state institutions, legal regulations, language or currency.
An extremely important role at that time was played by Statistics Poland, established by the Rescript of the Regency Board on 13 July, 1918. Under the decree, all official statistics was centralised in the Office. Over the past century, the statistics act has taken different forms and undergone numerous changes. The first one was adopted in 1919, entitling Statistics Poland to be a high-level authority of administrative statistics. Current Act of June, 1995, amended several times, provides the legal foundation for the functioning of Polish official statistics.
The statistical data collected from the very beginning of Polish statehood allow us to present the history of our country. The data collected and compiled by the Statistics Poland help to follow the political and socio-economic changes observed in Poland throughout its history.
A special role in statistical research carried out for over a hundred years by Statistics Poland play the censuses. In 1921, for the first time since the regaining of independence, Statistics Poland conducted a census on the Polish territory. This was the most important study, which illustrated Polish society after 123 years of captivity. Since then, every ten years the public statistics services have been carrying out censuses to provide comprehensive, reliable and objective data on the society and living conditions of the Polish population.
Next year, the Statistics Poland will once again carry out the National Census of Population and Housing - equally on the hundredth anniversary of the first general population census after the restoration of independence. The statistical data collected, compiled and published by the Statistics Poland are essential for the functioning of Poland at local, central and international levels.