Sectors and products characterised by high R&D intensity.
The following indicators measure R&D content or intensity: - the ratio of direct expenditures on R&D to added value, - the ratio of direct expenditures on R&D to value of production (sales), - the ratio of direct expenditures on R&D and indirect expenditures embodied in investment goods and semi-finished goods to value of production (sales). Works on preparation of international standardised methodological recommendations with regard to statistical surveys on high technology are coordinated by OECD. Two methods are usually applied in the analyses concerning high technology: the sector approach and the product approach. OECD is currently using two classifications of industries based on R&D content, also called in literature classifications of industries based on global technological intensity. The first list for the years 1970-1980 divided industries into three categories: high technology - including fields in which expenditures on R&D activities constituted more than 4% of sales value, medium technology - including fields in which expenditures on R&D activities constituted from 1% to 4% of sales value and low technology - including fields in which expenditures on R&D activities constituted 1% or less of sales value. The new list for the years 1980-1995 included 4 following categories: high technology, medium-high technology, medium-low technology and low technology. As for the product approach which is the development and supplement of the industry approach, high technology products list on the basis of Standard International Trade Classification (SITC) approved by Eurostat in April 2009 in connection with alteration from SITC Rev.3 to SITC Rev.4, including 9 product groups, is currently used. The notion of high technology is mainly used in relation to analyses regarding foreign trade. Indicators on foreign trade in the field of high technology were originally designed as measures of efficiency and impast of R&D activities. However, lately their usefulness in analyses of issues concerning competitiveness and globalisation has been underlined. The share of high technology in foreign trade of a given country is treated as a very important indicator of competitiveness of its economy on the international arena. In the survey conducted by the Central Statistical Office data derived from foreign trade statistics and data on employment and sold production of products are used to calculate the following indicators: - the share of fields of high technology in value of sold production of products in the section Manufacturing, - the share of fields of high technology in employment in the section Manufacturing - the value and balance of import and export of high technology, o the share of import and export of high technology in total import and export, o the structure of export and import of high technology by groups of products.